Standards Aligned to PBL Modules

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Pandem Disease Center—Standards for Epidemiology Aligned with Problem-based learning (PBL) and Case-based Learning (CBL) Modules

(See Next Generation Science Standards for other biological topics and standards covered in the Pandem Disease Center’s PBL/CBLs.)

CDC EPHS Core Competency

Epidemiology Thinking

CDC Epidemiology and Public Health Science Disciplinary Core ContentEnduring Understandings of Epidemiology (Kaelin et al.)NGSS Science and Engineering Practices

(See note under Obtaining, Evaluating and Communicating Information.)
NGSS Science and Engineering Crosscutting ConceptsPandem Disease Center PBL/CBL Modules/Materials
Describe how epidemiologic thinking is used to provide an evidence-based explanation concerning causes and correlations of health and disease. (HS-EPHS 1-1)Epidemiology Thinking
Epidemiology is the study of the distribution and determinants of health-related states and events and the application of this study to the control of health problems. (EPHS 1A)
The causes of health and disease are discoverable by systemically and rigorously identifying their patterns among population, formulating causal hypotheses, and testing those hypotheses by making group comparisons. (EU-1)
Constructing Explanations and Designed Solutions
Apply scientific ideas, principles, or evidence to provide an explanation of phenomena and solve design problems, taking into account possible unanticipated effects.


Cause and Effect
Empirical evidence is required to differentiate between cause and correlation and make claims about specific causes and effects.






Outbreak! (PBL)

Ruzizi Virus Fever

Emerging and Re-emerging Disease Funding

Tosari Virus Fever

Factors in the Increase of Emerging and Re-emerging Disease

Something’s Not Adding Up

A Friend’s Trouble

Pandem Data Epidemiological Modeling

Video Study Guides
Hunt for the Next Plague
Outbreak (Ebola)

Discuss how epidemiologic thinking and a public health approach is used to transform a narrative into an evidence-based explanation. (HS-EPHS 1-2)Epidemiology Thinking
Epidemiology is devoted to identifying factors that influence risk for disease among populations. This is analogous to making a diagnosis in clinical medicine. The goal is to identify a cause so that appropriate public health action might be taken. (EPHS 1A)

Public Health Approach
In public health, four general steps are used to approach a problem as follows: surveillance, risk, intervention evaluation and implementation. (EPHS 1B)

Steps of an outbreak investigation are presented in conceptual order. In practice, multiple steps can be done at the same time, or the circumstances of the outbreak might dictate that a different order by followed. (EPHS 1B)
An understanding of phenomena unrelated to health can be developed through epidemiologic thinking, by identifying their pattern in populations, formulating causal hypotheses, and testing those hypotheses by making group comparisons. (EU 12)
Developing and Using Models
Develop, revise, or use a model that is based on evidence to illustrate or predict relationships between systems or between components of a system. (EPHS 1 A)

Communicate scientific or technical information or ideas in multiple formats (orally, graphically, textually, and mathematically).

Note: All PBL/CBLs align with the NGSS Obtaining, Evaluating and Communicating Information
standard.



Cause and Effect
Empirical evidence is required to differentiate between cause and correlation and make claims about specific causes and effects.

Ruzizi Virus Fever

Outbreak! (PBL)

Emerging and Re-emerging Disease Funding

Tosari Virus Fever

Factors in the Increase of Emerging and Re-emerging Disease

Is Cancer Infectious?

Something’s Not Adding Up

Pandem Data Epidemiological Modeling
Discuss how epidemiologic thinking and a public health approach to a model (ie outbreak) to explain cause and effect associations that influence health and disease. (HS-EPHS 1-3)
Epidemiology Thinking
Epidemiology is devoted to identifying factors that influence risk for disease among populations. This is analogous to making a diagnosis in clinical medicine. The goal is to identify a cause so that appropriate public health action might be taken. (EPHS 1A)

Public Health Approach
In public health, four general steps are used to approach a problem as follows: surveillance, risk, intervention evaluation and implementation. (EPHS 1B)

Steps of an outbreak investigation are presented in conceptual order. In practice, multiple steps can be done at the same time, or the circumstances of the outbreak might dictate that a different order by followed. (EPHS 1B)
The causes of health and disease are discoverable by systematically and rigorously identifying their patterns among populations, formulating causal hypotheses, and testing those hypotheses by making group comparisons. These methods are at the core of the science of epidemiology. Epidemiology is the basic science of public health, a discipline responsible for improving health and preventing disease among the population. (EU 1)
Developing and Using Models
Develop, revise, or use a model that is based on evidence to illustrate or predict relationships between systems or between components of a system. (EPHS 1 A)
Cause and Effect
Cause and effect relationships can be suggested and predicted for complex natural and human designed system by examining what is known about smaller scale mechanisms within the system.
Outbreak! (PBL)
Ruzizi Virus

Something’s Not Adding Up

Pandem Data Epidemiological Modeling

Tosari Virus Fever

Community Vaccinations

Family Vaccinations

Not Another Flu Shot!

Is Cancer Infectious?

Video Study Guides:
Hunting the Nightmare Bacteria
The Hunt for the Next Plague
CDC EPHS Core Competency

Public Health Surveillance

CDC Epidemiology and Public Health Science Disciplinary Core ContentEnduring Understandings of Epidemiology (Kaelin et al.)NGSS Science and Engineering PracticesNGSS Science and Engineering Crosscutting ConceptsPandem Disease Center PBL/CBL Modules/Materials
Describe how to collect reliable data regarding priority health-related phenomena by using public health surveillance systems. (HS-EPHS 2-1)Public Health Surveillance
Public health surveillance is the ongoing, systematic collection, analysis, interpretations, and dissemination of health data to help guide public health decision making and action.

Criteria for selecting health problems for surveillance includes public health importance, ability to prevent or control the problem, and the capacity of the system to implement such measures.
Health and disease are not distributed haphazardly among a population. Patterns to their occurrence are discernable. These patterns can be identified through the surveillance of populations. (EU 2)
Planning and Carrying Out Investigations
Plan and conduct an investigation individually and collaboratively to produce data to serve as the basis for evidence and in the design; decide on types how much, and accuracy of data needed to produce reliable measurements and consider limitations on the precision of the data (number of trials, cost, risk, and time, and refine the design accordingly.
Systems and System Models
Models can be used to predict the behavior of a system, but these predictions have limited precision and reliability due to the assumptions and approximations inherent in the models.
Outbreak!

Ruzizi Virus Fever

Emerging and Re-emerging Diseases Funding

Factors in the Increase of Emerging and Re-emerging Disease


Pandem Data Epidemiological Modeling

Video Study Guides:
The Trouble with Antibiotics
The Vaccine That Saved the World
Outbreak (Ebola)
Use credible evidence to describe a public health surveillance system. (HS-EPHS 2-2)Passive surveillance occurs when data regarding the characteristics of diseases are sent to a health agency without prompting (registries, notifications)

Active surveillance occurs when data regarding the characteristics of diseases are prompted or solicited.

Surveillance system attributes (simplicity, flexibility, data quality, stability, acceptability, sensitivity, predictive value, timeliness) can be quantitatively and qualitatively analyzed to determine credibility. (EPHS 2A)
Health and disease are not distributed haphazardly among a population. Patterns to their occurrence are discernable. These patterns can be identified through the surveillance of populations. (EU 2)
Planning and Carrying out Investigations
Plan an investigation or test a design individually and collaboratively to produce data to serve as the basis for evidence as part of building and revising models, supporting explanations for phenomena, or testing solution to problems. Consider possible confounding variables or effects and evaluate the investigation’s design to ensure variables are controlled.

Using mathematics and Computations Thinking mathematical, computational, or algorithmic representations of phenomena or design solutions to describe or support claims or explanations.

Engaging in Argument from Evidence
Make and defend a claim based on evidence about the natural world or the effectiveness of a design solution that reflects scientific knowledge and student-generated evidence. Systems and System Models
When investigating or describing a system, the boundaries and initial conditions of the system need to be defined and their inputs and output analyzed and described using models. Quarantine! Who Has the Right?
Systems and System Models
When investigating or describing a system, the boundaries and initial conditions of the system need to be defined and their inputs and output analyzed and described using models.
Quarantine! Who Has the Right?

Pandem Data Epidemiological Modeling

Video Study Guides
The Hunt for the Next Plague
Outbreak (Ebola)
The Trouble with Antibiotics
Hunting the Nightmare Bacteria

Note: All PBL/CBLs align with the argumentation standard in NGSS.
Use models (mathematical models or figures) that are based on empirical evidence to identify patterns of health and disease to characterize a public health problem. (HS-EPHS 2-3)
Descriptive Epidemiology
Descriptive epidemiology organizes data by time, place, and person to characterize a problem, identify populations at risk, develop hypotheses regarding risk factors, and target control and prevention strategies. (EPHS 2 B)

Data can be organized by using frequency measures (incidence, prevalence, and mortality rates) and presented by using figures (epi-curves, graphs, tables, and maps) (EPHS 2B)

Health and disease are not distributed haphazardly among a population. Patterns to their occurrence are discernable. These patterns can be identified through the surveillance of population. (EU 2)
Analyzing and Interpreting Data
Analyze data using tools, technologies, or models (computational and mathematical) in order to make valid and reliable scientific claims or determine an optimal design solution. Patterns
Mathematical representations are needed to identify some patterns.

Empirical evidence is needed to identify patterns.



Patterns
Mathematical representations are needed to identify some patterns.

Empirical evidence is needed to identify patterns.

Outbreak!

Ruzizi Virus

Emerging and Re-emerging Diseases Funding

Tosari Virus Fever

Risky Tans

Pandem Data Epidemiological Modeling

Use patterns in empirical evidence to formulate hypotheses. (HS EPHS 2-4)Hypotheses, on the basis of what is known concerning the disease, descriptive epidemiology, and what others have postulated, must be developed before conducting a study. (EPHS 2-4) Analysis of patterns of health and disease can help formulate hypotheses regarding their possible causes. Planning and Carrying out Investigations
Make directional hypotheses that specify what happens to a dependent variable when an independent variable is manipulated.

Asking Questions and Defining Problems
Ask questions that arise from careful observation of phenomena, or unexpected results, to clarify or seek additional information, that arise from examining models or a theory, to clarify or seek additional information and relationships , to determine relationships, including quantitative relationship, between independent and dependent variables, and to clarify and refine a model, an explanation, or an engineering problem.
Patterns
Empirical evidence is needed to identify patterns.




Outbreak!

Ruzizi Virus Fever

Emerging and Re-emerging Diseases

Tosari Virus Fever

Pandem Data Epidemiological Modeling
Use empirical data from an observational study to mathematically quantify an association between an exposure and disease.
(HS-EPHS 3-2)
A hypothesis can be tested by comparing the frequency of disease in selected groups of people with and without an exposure to determine if the exposure and the disease are associated. (EU 4)
Pandem Data Epidemiological Modeling
Make a statement concerning an association between an exposure and disease with consideration of a mathematical analysis of empirical data (HS-EPHS 3-4)
One possible explanation for finding an association is that the exposure causes the outcome. Because studies are complicated by factors not controlled by the observer, other explanations also must be considered, including chance, bias, confounding, and reverse time order. (EU 7)
Outbreak!

Ruzizi Virus Fever

Tosari Virus Fever

Pandem Data Epidemiological Modeling
While a given exposure might be necessary to cause an outcome, the presence of a single factor is seldom sufficient. The majority of outcomes are caused by a combination of exposures that can include genetic make-up, behaviors, social, economic, and cultural factors and the environment. EU 8)

Judgement regarding whether an exposure causes a disease is developed by examining a body of epidemiologic evidence as well as evidence from other scientific disciplines. (EU 9)
Ruzizi Virus Fever

Outbreak! (PBL)

Emerging and Re-emerging Disease Funding

Factors in the Increase of Emerging and Re-emerging Disease

Video Study Guides
The Hunt for the Next Plague
The Trouble with Antibiotics
Describe a model illustrating how scientific, social, economic, environmental, cultural, and political systems influence intervention performance patterns. (HS-EPHS 4-1)

Individual and societal decisions regarding what should be done to improve health and prevent disease are based on more than scientific evidence. Social, economic, ethical, environmental, cultural, or political factors are also considered in decision making. (EU 10 )

Outbreak (PBL)

Factors in the Increase of Emerging and Re-emerging Disease

Emerging and Re-emerging Disease Funding

Quarantine: Who Has the Right?

Video Study Guides
Outbreak (Ebola)
Hunt for the Next Plague (video lesson)
Use a targeted health promotion and communication approach (taking into consideration scientific knowledge, the organization of systems and their performance patterns, prioritized criteria, and tradeoff considerations) to design intervention strategies. (HS-EPHS 4-2)
Individual and societal decisions regarding what should be done to improve health and prevent disease are based on more than scientific evidence. Social, economic, ethical, environmental, cultural, or political factors are also considered in decision making. (EU 10 )
Family vaccinations

Community vaccinations

A Friend’s Trouble

Risky Tans

Video Study Guides
Outbreak (Ebola)
The Vaccine That Saved the World
The Hunt for the Next Plague
Evaluate competing health-related intervention strategies by using a systematic assessment to improve effectiveness. (HS EPHS 4-3)The effectiveness of a health-promoting strategy can be evaluated by comparing the frequency of disease among selected groups of persons who were and were not exposed to the strategy. Cost, trade-off, and alternative solution must also be considered in evaluating strategies. (EU 11)A Friend’s Trouble

Risky Tans

References:
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Epidemiology and Public Health Science: Core Competencies for High School Students. Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services, CDC; 2015.

Kaelin, M.A., Huebner,  W.W., Cordell, R.L., Szklarczuk, B. Professional develop for prospective epidemiology teachers in grades, 6-12. Public Health Rep. 2008; 123 (suppl. 2): 5-11.

National Research Council. A Framework for K-12 Science Education: Practices, Crosscutting Concepts, and Core Ideas. Washington, DC: National Academies Press; 2011.

NGSS Lead States. Next Generation Science Standards: For States, By states. 2013. Available at: http://www.nextgenscience.org/next-generation-science-standards.